Atunç Pirti

DOI: 10.15292/geodetski-vestnik.2012.03.427-442



Namen raziskave je oceniti ponovljivost RTK-metode GPS-opazovanj v odvisnosti od različne geometrije razporeditve satelitov in z uporabo različnih referenčnih postaj. Uporabili smo metodo enosmerne analize variance (ANOVA), ki omogoča učinkovito primerjavo spremenljivosti podobnih meritev. RTK-metodo GPS-opazovanj smo opravili z več referenčnimi postajami, saj je tako mogoče doseči homogeno natančnost v celotni mreži. Prav tako je natančnost manj odvisna od oddaljenosti izmeritvenih točk od referenčne postaje. Tako sta omogočeni visoka zanesljivost in dostopnost opazovanj, saj lahko eno referenčno postajo ob morebitnem izpadu nadomestimo z drugo, kar je velika prednost pred uporabo samo ene referenčne postaje. Z metodo ANOVA lahko učinkovito preverimo kakovost popravkov, ki jih ustvarijo posamezne referenčne postaje.

Ključne besede: RTK GPS, natančnost, ponovljivost, ANOVA



The purpose of this study is to evaluate the repeatability of RTK GPS method under varying satellite configurations by using different reference points. Furthermore, we conducted one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), which is a powerful tool for comparing the variability of related types of measurements. Multi-reference station is a well–known approach in RTK GPS. Using multi-reference points is an effective way to achieve consistent accuracy in the whole net by making errors less distance dependent on the reference stations. It is possible to achieve high reliability and availability by using multi-reference stations. If one station goes down or starts to provide suspicious values, it is possible to compensate the situation with other stations, while this is not possible when a single reference station fails. Here we present ANOVA which is an effective method to check the quality of corrections generated from each reference station.

Keywords: RTK GPS, Accuracy, Repeatability, ANOVA


Literatura / References:

El-Mowafy, A., (2000). Performance Analysis of the RTK Technique in an Urban Environment. The Australian Surveyor, 45:1.

El-Mowafy, A., El-Maghraby, M. and Issa, M., (1997). Using Semi-Kinematic GPS Techniques for Establishing and Densifying Horizontal Control Networks in Egypt. Proceedings of International Symposium on Kinematic Systems in Geodesy, Geomatics and Navigation (KIS) Bannf, Canada, June 3-6, 1997.

Hoffmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger H., and Collins J., (2000). GPS Theory and Practice. Fifth revised edition, Springer-Verlag Wien-New York.

Langley, R., (1998). RTK GPS. GPS World, 9(9).

Lemmon, T.R. and Gerdan G., (1999). The Influence of the Number of Satellites on the Accuracy of RTK GPS Positions. The Australian Surveyor. 44(1).

McClave, T.J., Sinccich, T., (2000). Statistics, Eight Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, ISBN 0-13-022329-8.

Pirti, A. (2011). Evaluating the repeatability of RTK GPS, Survey Review Journal, Vol.43, No.320, April.

Robouch, P., Bulska, E., Duta, S., Lauwaars, M., Le?to, Majcen, I.N., Norgaard, J., Suchanek, M., Vassileva, E. and Taylor, P., (2003). TrainMiC - Training in Metrology in Chemistry, European Commission Directorate General Joint Research Centre Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Belgium (tera.chem. ut.ee/~ivo/metro/TrainMiC-EU-Rep.pdf)

Raquet, J., Lachapelle, G., (2001). RTK Positioning with Multiple Reference Stations. GPS World, April.

Satalich, J. and Rickeston, R., (1998). Field Test of Trimble 4000 Real-Time Kinematic GPS Survey System. Journal of Surveying Engineering (ASCE), 124(1).

Thales Navigation, (2002). Z Family (Ashtech) GPS Receivers Technical Reference Manual,(www.thalesnavigation.com/en/support/apptechnotes.asp#18), (ftp.thalesnavigation.com/Reference Manuals/Z-Max Ops&Aps Manuals)

Van Diggelen, F., (1997). “GPS and GPS+GLONASS RTK”, The International Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation, ION-GPS 97, Kansas City, MO, September.

Walpole, R.E., Myers, R.H., (1993). Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists. Fifth Edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.

Wolf R.P., Ghilani D.G., (1997). Adjustment Computations Statistics and Least Squares in Surveying and GIS. 3rd Edition, Wiley Series in Surveying and Boundary Control, ISBN: 0-471-16833-5, USA.

URL1: www.minitabtraining.com/Downloads/TrainingSampleMeasurementSystems.pdf, www.bamr.co.za/randr.shtml
(The guidelines for acceptance of Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility, AIAG guidelines for the gage R&R table)