SAMODEJNA KOREGISTRACIJA TRIRAZSEŽNIH MODELOV STAVB Z GRAFIČNIMI GRADNIKI NA PODOBAH
AUTOMATIC COREGISTRATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BUILDING MODELS WITH IMAGE FEATURES

Janja Avbelj, Dorota Iwaszczuk, Uwe Stilla, Krištof Oštir

DOI: 10.15292/geodetski-vestnik.2012.01.041-056

 

Izvleček:

Namen naše raziskave je samodejna določitev tekstur streh in fasad stavb z infrardečih (IR) posnetkov za teksturiranje obstoječega trirazsežnega (3D) modela stavb. Za to je treba izboljšati natančnosti neposredno izmerjenih parametrov zunanje orientacije IR-kamere, pritrjene na mobilno platformo. Ta prispevek opisuje metodo, razvito za izboljšanje parametrov zunanje orientacije, ki temelji na ujemanju točk samodejno zaznanih grafičnih gradnikov z IR-videoposnetka in žičnega modela stavb. Najprej proučimo zaznavo različnih tipov grafičnih gradnikov na testnem IR-posnetku. Förstnerjeve in presečiščne točke izberemo kot primerne grafične gradnike za predstavitev obravnavanih značilnosti stavb na IR-posnetku. 3D-model stavb projiciramo na vsak posamezen posnetek videosekvence ob upoštevanju orientacijskih parametrov, od katerih so parametri zunanje orientacije podani s približnimi vrednostmi. Nato izvedemo samodejno koregistracijo 3D-modela stavb, projiciranega na videoposnetek, in grafičnih gradnikov, zaznanih z istega IR-videoposnetka. Samodejno ujemanje 3D-modela stavb in zaznanih grafičnih gradnikov poteka iterativno in skupaj z izravnavo parametrov zunanje orientacije z metodo najmanjših kvadratov. Razvito metodologijo za koregistracijo in izravnavo zunanjih orientacijskih parametrov smo preizkusili na strnjenem poseljenem
območju. Kakovost metodologije ocenimo s petimi parametri: učinkovitostjo metodologije, popolnostjo in pravilnostjo algoritmov za ujemanje in zaznavo grafičnih gradnikov.

Ključne besede: 3D-model stavb, digitalna obdelava podob, koregistracija podob, zaznava grafičnih gradnikov, infrardeč spekter

 

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to investigate methods for the automatic extraction of the infrared (IR) textures for the roofs and facades of existing building models. We focus on the correction of the measured exterior orientation parameters of the IR camera mounted on a mobile platform. The developed method is based on point-to-point matching of the features extracted from IR images with a wire-frame building model. Firstly, the extraction of different feature types is studied on a sample IR image; Förstner and intersection points are chosen for a representation of the image features. Secondly, the three-dimensional (3D) building model is projected into each frame of the IR video sequence using orientation parameters; only coarse exterior orientation parameters are known. Then the automatic co-registration of a 3D building model projection into the image sequence with image features is carried out. The matching of a model and extracted features is applied iteratively, and exterior orientation parameters are adjusted with least square adjustment. The method is tested on a dataset of a dense urban area. Finally, an evaluation of the developed method is presented with five quality parameters, i.e. efficiency of the method, completeness and correctness of matching and extraction.

Keywords: 3D building model, digital image processing, image coregistration, feature extraction, infrared spectrum

 

Literatura / References:

Albert, J., Bachmann, M., Hellmeier, A. (2003). Zielgruppen und Anwendungen für Digitale Stadtmodelle und Digitale Geländemodelle. Erhebungen im Rahmen der SIG 3D der GDI NRW. Institut für Geodäsie und Geoinformation, Universität Bonn, Germany. http://www.ikg.uni-bonn.de/fileadmin/sig3d/pdf/Tabelle_Anwendungen_Zielgruppen.pdf. (dostop: 9. 6. 2010).

Avbelj, J., Iwaszczuk D., Stilla, U. (2010). Matching of 3D wire-frame building models with image features from infrared video sequences taken by helicopters or UAVs. V: ISPRS Commission III symposium on Photogrammetric Computer Vision and Image Analysis, Pariz, Francija, 1.–3. september 2010: 6 str.

Avbelj, J. (2010). Co-registration of three-dimensional building models with image features from infrared video sequences. Diplomska naloga. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo, Oddelek za geodezijo.

Ding, M., Lyngbaek, K., Zakhor, A. (2008). Automatic registration of aerial imagery with untextured 3D LiDAR models. V: Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR, Anchorage, Alaska, June 2008: 6 str.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2008.4587661

Direktiva 2010/31/EU Evropskega parlamenta in Sveta z dne 19. maja 2010. (2010). Energetska učinkovitost stavb(prenova). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:153:SOM:EN: HTML  (dostop: 7. 6. 2010).

Fischler, M. A., Bolles, R. C. (1981). Random sample consensus: A paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography. Communications of the ACM 24(6), 381–395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/358669.358692

Förstner, W. (1994). A framework for low level feature extraction. V: Computer Vision - ECCV 94, 383–394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BFb0028370

Förstner, W., Gülch, E. (1987). A Fast Operator for Detection and Precise Location of Distinct Points, Corners and Circular Features. V: Proceedings of the Intercommission Conference on Fast Processing of Photogrammetric Data, Interlaken, 281–305.

Frueh, C., Sammon, R., Zakhor, A. (2004). Automated Texture Mapping of 3D City Models With Oblique Aerial Imagery. V: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission 3DPVT, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 2004, 396–403.

Grewal, M. S., Weill, L. R., Andrews, A. P. (2007). Global Positioning Systems, Inertial Navigation, and Integration. Wiley-Interscience, A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, 382–424.

Halcon MVTec software(2010). http://www.mvtec.com/halcon/ (dostop 23. 3. 2010).

Hoegner, L., Stilla, U. (2009). Thermal leakage detection on building facades using infrared textures generated by mobile mapping. IEEE V: 2009 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event JURSE 2009, Shanghai, China: 6 str. http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2008/STAGING/local_assets/2009_downloads/statistical_review_of_world_energy_full_report_2009.pdf. (dostop 02.03. 2012).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/URS.2009.5137681

Hsu, S., Samarasekera, S., Kumar, R., Sawhney, H. S. (2000). Pose estimation, model refinement, and enhanced visualization using video. V: IEEE Proceedings of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR00, Hilton Head, South Carolina, 488–495.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2000.855859

ISO/TC 163 (2010). International Organization for Standardization, Technical committee 163: Thermal performance and energy use in the built environment. http://isotc.iso.org/livelink/livelink/open/tc163(dostop 7. 6. 2010).

Iwaszczuk, D., Avbelj, J., Stilla, U. (2010). Matching von 3D Gebäudemodellen mit Wärmebildern einer flugzeuggetragenen IR-Kamera. V: 3-Ländertagung DGPF - OVG - SGPBF, Technische Universität Wien, 1.–3. julij 2010, 8 str.

Kajfež-Bogataj, L. 2005. Climate change impacts on quality of human live = Podnebne spremembe in njihovi vplivi na kakovost življenja ljudi. Acta agriculturae Slovenica (Slovenia), 85, 41–54.

Kolecki, J., Iwaszczuk, D., Stilla, U. (2010). Calibration of an IR camera system for automatic texturing of 3D building models by direct geo-referenced images. V: Proceedings of Calibration and Orientation Workshop EuroCOW. Castelldefels, Spain February 2010: 6 str.

Lee, S. C., Jung, S. K., Nevatia, R. (2002). Automatic Pose Estimation of Complex 3D Building Models. V: Sixth IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision WCAV, 3.–4. December 2002, Orlando, Florida, 148–152.

OpenGIS City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) (2008). Encoding Standard, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).
http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/citygml (dostop 20. 8. 2008).

Oštir, K. (2006.) Daljinsko zaznavanje. Ljubljana, Založba ZRC: 250 str.

Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, British Petroleum June 2010 (2010). http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2008/STAGING/local_assets/2009_downloads/statistical_review_of_world_energy_full_report_2009.pdf  (dostop 2.3. 2012).

Stilla, U., Soergel, U., Jaeger, K. 2000. Generation of 3D-city models and their utilization in image sequences. V: International archives of photogrammetry and remote sensing, 33, part B2, 518–524.

Stilla, U., Kolecki J., Hoegner, L. 2009. Texture mapping of 3D building models with oblique direct geo-referenced airborne IR image sequences. V: ISPRS Hannover Workshop 2009: High-resolution earth Imaging for geospatial information, 38, 1–4–7/W5: 6 str.

Tian, Y., Gerke, M., Vosselman, G., Zhu, Q. (2008). Automatic Edge Matching Across an Image Sequence Based on Reliable Points. V: Chen J., (ur.), Jiang J., (ur.), Förstner W., (ur.). The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science, Beijing, 657–662.

Weng, Q. 2009. Thermal infrared remote sensing for urban climate and environmental studies: Methods, applications, and trends. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64, 4, 335–344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2009.03.007